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Ancient Saddles

Medieval Saddles

Pack Saddles

Peytrals and Cruppers


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Ancient saddles

The point at which horse cloths gave way to shaped saddles is lost in the mists of time. The scanty evidence suggest that earliest fully shaped saddle was in use in Europe from the second century before the Common Era. Evidence becomes much more prevalent in the first century CE in the Roman Empire, showing four horned saddles, which despite their lack of stirrups, are highly effective in military use. The evidence for these saddles is primarily pictorial, but those are supplemented by archaeological finds of leather pieces from saddle coverings, bronze plates used to face the horns,1 and a piece of wood which has been plausibly identified as a saddle arch from Carlisle.2
The limited quantity and quality of evidence means that any reconstruction of such a saddle demands a lot of conjecture. As a point of fundamental philosophy, it should never be assumed that there was only one way of doing anything, even in a single culture over a limited period, let alone over the vast geographical spread of the earlier Roman Empire, and the hundreds of years until horned saddles were supplanted by stirrup-bearing saddles. Only one find of leather comprises most of a complete covering, and there ample examples of saddles across time and cultures where exposed wood are the norm. Hence, I contend that such a mode could be one viable interpretation.

Iranian saddle

The saddle of an ancient Iranian clibanarius.

The katafraktoi (Greek) or clibanarii (Latin) of ancient Iran (Parthians and Persians - what did they call them?) were much more heavily armoured that Roman cavalry of the early imperial era, and took the fight much more directly to the enemy. Hence, their their saddles were designed to be even more enclosing and stable than Roman ones, with the front horns being shown in the artworks as arching over to enclose the thighs. See the Ribchester Roman Festival 2017 page for more on this saddle in use.

Roman saddle

An early imperial era Roman saddle
built entirely from scratch using new techniques.

Roman saddle

A somewhat more conventional style in a Roman saddle.

steppe saddle

Conversion of a modern UP saddle producing
a late antique — medieval steppe / near eastern style.

Stirrup-bearing saddles were carried into Europe in the later fifth and early sixth century by the migrating tribes who overran the Western provinces of the Roman Empire. Their original form having low arches was never superseded, although as cavalry developed as a primary military mode, low saddles were relegated to civilian riding in the West, although continued in military us in the East until influenced from the West during the era of the Crusades.


  1. M.C. Bishop, ‘Cavalry Equipment of the Roman Army in the First Century A.D.’, in J.C. Coulston, (ed.), Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference, BAR International Series 394, Oxford 1988. Peter Connolly and Carol Van Driel-Murray, ‘The Roman Cavalry Saddle’, Brittannia vol. 22 (1991)
  2. Howard-Davis, Christine, et al. The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998—2001, vol 2: the finds, Oxford Archaeology North, Lancaster 2009, p. 814.